Alaska Squatter’s Rights
December 13, 2023
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Handling Squatters In Alaska
Squatters – those mysterious figures who move into abandoned or vacant properties – have long been a subject of curiosity and confusion. Many people wonder—and fear—how squatters sometimes end up with legal rights to the property they’ve occupied.
Squatters’ rights exist in various forms across the United States, including Alaska. The requirements for claiming these rights vary from state to state, making it essential to understand the specific laws in your area.
While you can feel comforted that it is notoriously difficult for a squatter to fulfill all the requirements necessary to make a successful legal claim to your property, it never hurts to be prepared. In this article, we’ll cover Alaska squatters rights and explain how adverse possession works in this state.
- Minimum Occupation Required: 7-10 consecutive years
- Property Taxes Required? No
- Color of Title Required? Optional; 7 years with color of title sufficient
Who Are Squatters?
A squatter is someone who occupies a property without legal ownership or permission from the property owner. They often move into vacant, abandoned, or neglected properties. Squatters could squat temporarily (e.g., for a few weeks) or for years at a time.
While the term “squatter” probably summons a certain image in your mind, it’s important to note that not all squatters have nefarious intentions. A squatter could be someone who thought they legally owned a property that has been passed down in their family over many generations, only to find out years later that the title officially belongs to someone else.
Who Isn’t a Squatter?
Not everyone who occupies a property without permission is a squatter. For instance, tenants with expired leases are not squatters. Rather, they are “holdover tenants,” or previous tenants who no longer have the right to live in the property. Likewise, trespassers are also not squatters. Criminal trespassers are people who enter onto your private property but do not live there, while squatters actually occupy and live on the vacant property.
What Are Squatter’s Rights/Adverse Possession?
Squatter’s rights, also known as adverse possession, refer to the general legal principles that allow squatters to gain ownership of a property through a long period of possession, even without the owner’s permission. While squatter’s rights might seem antiquated today, the principles of adverse possession were established to reward the productive use of land and discourage neglect of properties.
There is no federal law governing squatter’s rights, but there are legal precedents for them in each state and laws governing some of the requirements to claim adverse possession.
Alaska Squatter’s Rights
To make a successful claim for adverse possession in Alaska, a squatter must meet one of the following requirements as per Alaska’s adverse possession law:
- Occupy the property with color of title for at least seven years
- Occupy the property for at least ten years because of a “good faith” but mistaken belief that the property was within the boundaries of an adjacent real property that the squatter owned (AL Statute 09.45.052(a)).
“Color of title” refers to the status of someone who has ownership of the property, but not in the “traditional” way. They will most likely not have one or more of the required legal documents, or the property is somehow not properly registered in their name. Alaska law governs claims based on color of title so that landowners can keep possession of their land unless the squatter has an alternative reason to possess it.
“Good faith” claims to property in Alaska refers to scenarios in which someone occupies a property without knowing that someone else owns it. “Good faith” can also refer to situations where someone has an incorrect deed to the property. They are unaware of the property’s legal status and occupy it “in good faith.”
Squatters must also meet five general requirements:
- Hostile/Adverse—The squatter must not have a valid lease or rental agreement with the owner.
- Actual—The squatter must have actively lived in the property for a certain length of time.
- Open and notorious—The squatter’s possession of the property is open and obvious to neighbors or anyone else. They aren’t living there “in secret” or trying to hide their presence.
- Exclusive—The squatter does not share possession of the property with anyone else. They prevent others from living there like an owner would.
- Continuous—The squatter must hold continuous and uninterrupted possession of the property for seven to ten consecutive years.
How Do Alaska Squatters Claim Adverse Possession?
If a squatter has fulfilled both the Alaska requirements for squatter’s rights and the general squatter’s rights principles above, they can file a claim for adverse possession or bring an action to “quiet title.” Quiet title is the legal action to claim the right of possession and ownership of a particular property.
Note, however, that just because a squatter files a claim, this does not mean they will be successful. There are many obstacles to winning an adverse possession case—for instance, the squatter would need to:
- Gather ample evidence for their claim (e.g., mail addressed to the property in their name, property tax receipts, evidence that they’ve “beautified” the property, etc.)
- File a quiet title complaint with the court
- Attend a hearing with you in front of a judge, where they’ll present their case for adverse possession
- Successfully convince a judge that they have fulfilled all the state requirements for adverse possession
- Receive a judgment for adverse possession to perfect the title
As you can see, a squatter has an enormous burden of proof when claiming ownership of your property. It is a highly complex process that often requires the squatter to hire an attorney and to have lived on your property for many years. In all likelihood, a squatter situation you’re involved in won’t escalate to a successful action to quiet title.
How to Remove a Squatter in Alaska
In Alaska, as in almost all other states, removing a squatter necessitates the full eviction process. If you find out that a squatter is living in your property, you need to provide proper notice, file a formal eviction complaint in court, and attend (or get your attorney to attend) a hearing to lawfully remove the tenant.
Here is an overview of the eviction process for Alaska squatters:
- The owner of the property should serve a formal eviction notice. The possible eviction notices in Alaska include:
- A seven-day pay or quit notice for the nonpayment of rent
- A ten-day cure or quit notice for lease violations
- A 24-hour notice to quit if there is illegal activity occurring on the premises or substantial damage sustained to the property
- After the time allowed by the notice has expired and the squatter has not left the property, the owner may file a complaint for Forcible Entry and Detainer in either the Alaska District or Superior Court in the judicial district where the property is located.
- A court date will be set, and the squatter will be served a summons to court.
- A hearing will be held to determine possession of the property. If the squatter does not attend the court date, the judge will rule in the owner’s favor.
- The property owner will receive a Writ of Assistance from the court. They can take this writ to either a Peace Officer or State Trooper and request that they remove the squatter from the property.
How to Prevent Squatters from Living in Your Vacant Alaska Property
Here are a few practical tips to prevent squatters from moving into your vacant property:
- Regularly inspect your property.
- Make your property appear inhabited during vacancy periods.
- Install adequate lighting and security systems to deter unauthorized entry.
- Secure all doors, windows, and access points with sturdy locks and barriers.
- Post “No Trespassing” signs on the property.
- Encourage neighbors to report any suspicious activity.
- Consider hiring a property management company to oversee and maintain the property.
- If feasible, keep the property in use, even if temporarily, to discourage squatting.
- Develop a good relationship with local law enforcement and notify them of the property’s vacancy to increase patrols and response to trespassing.
Knowledge is indeed power when it comes to understanding the laws that regulate property possession and ownership. However, it’s worth noting that adverse possession laws are unlikely to come into play in most cases. Property neglect to the extent that a squatter could go unnoticed for the required period is rare, emphasizing the importance of vigilance and preventative measures in protecting property rights.
Innago does not provide legal advice. The content and materials provided in this article are for general informational purposes only and may not be the most up-to-date information.