Military Housing

How Does the Military Housing Privatization Initiative Impact Landlords?

July 14, 2023

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Guide To The Military Housing Privatization Initiative

In 1996, Congress authorized the Military Housing Privatization Initiative to enhance the quality and condition of the Department of Defense’s (DoD) deteriorating housing inventory. 

Military budget cuts at the close of the Cold War and existing funds diverted to other readiness programs facilitated recruitment and retention challenges. 

The reason for this was inadequate housing and a $20 billion housing maintenance backlog that would require 30 years to remedy using traditional methods of contracting and construction. 

Nowadays, the public-private partnerships created between the military branches and housing developers encompass more than 80 MHPI projects and 200,000 housing units around the country.  


The MHPI is a program implemented by the United States Department of Defense (DoD) to address the inadequate condition of military housing and provide better living conditions for military service members and their families. The initiative was established in response to concerns about the deteriorating state of on-base housing. 

Under the MHPI, the DoD partners with private companies, known as private housing developers or property management firms, to improve, manage, and maintain military housing. The program involves the transfer of ownership and operational responsibilities of military housing from the government to these private sector entities. 

The process begins with the identification of military installations where housing privatization is deemed necessary. The DoD assesses the existing housing conditions, identifying properties that require renovation or replacement. Based on this assessment, the DoD determines the scope of the privatization effort and solicits proposals from private housing developers. 

Private housing developers submit proposals outlining their plans for developing, renovating, operating, and managing military housing units. The proposals typically include details about the financial aspects, construction plans, management strategies, and tenant services. The DoD evaluates these proposals based on criteria like the developer’s financial capability, experience, and the proposed plan’s suitability. 

Once a private housing developer is selected, a partnership agreement (e.g., project agreement) is established between the developer and the military. This agreement outlines the terms, responsibilities, and financial arrangements between the parties involved. It typically includes provisions related to the developer’s financing, construction or renovation plans, management of the housing units, rent collection, maintenance, and tenant services. 

The private housing developer is responsible for financing the development or renovation of the military housing units. They secure funding through various means, including private investment, loans, and tax-exempt bonds. In some cases, the developer may also receive financial incentives from the government, such as rental subsidies or guaranteed occupancy rates. 

Once the housing units are constructed, the private housing developer assumes responsibility for the day-to-day management and maintenance of the properties (tasks like rent collection, repairs, landscaping, and addressing tenant concerns). The developer must also ensure compliance with applicable regulations, including health, safety, and environmental standards. 

The military housing units are typically offered to military service members and their families at a rental price determined by the partnership agreement. Rent is typically set based on the local housing market rates, but there may be certain restrictions or guidelines to ensure affordability for military personnel. The military retains some level of oversight to ensure that the developer fulfills its contractual obligations and maintains appropriate living conditions for the tenants. 

How The MHPI Impacts Landlords 

The impact of the initiative on landlords primarily depends on whether they’re directly involved in the program or have rental properties located near military bases. So, let’s take a more in-depth look at private housing developers and then landlords that are just near military bases. 

Private Housing Developers 

Private companies that participate in the military housing privatization initiative can secure long-term contracts and receive financial incentives from the government. These organizations invest in the development or renovation of military housing and assume the responsibility for managing the properties. It can be a lucrative business opportunity for private developers, as they often receive a share of the rental income and may benefit from guaranteed occupancy rates due to the demand for military housing. 

There are several elements that are important to understand when it comes to these arrangements: 

  • Long-Term Contracts: Private housing developers participating in the initiative can secure long-term contracts with the military. These contracts typically span several decades, often around 50 years, providing stability and a predictable revenue stream for the developer. This long-term commitment allows developers to plan and invest in the development, renovation, and management of military housing properties. 
  • Financial Incentives: The government provides financial incentives to private housing developers to encourage their participation in the privatization initiative. These incentives can take various forms, including rental subsidies, tax benefits, loan guarantees, or other financial arrangements. These incentives help offset the costs associated with developing or renovating military housing units and ensure that the developer can achieve a reasonable return on their investment. 
  • Development and Renovation: Private housing developers are responsible for the construction or renovation of military housing units. They invest significant resources in designing, building, and modernizing the properties to meet the specific needs of military personnel and their families. This includes ensuring compliance with applicable building codes and standards, incorporating energy-efficient features, and creating functional and comfortable living spaces. 
  • Property Management: Once the housing units are developed or renovated, private housing developers assume the day-to-day management responsibilities. This includes tasks such as marketing the housing units, screening and selecting tenants, collecting rent, addressing maintenance requests, and providing necessary tenant services. Developers may establish on-site property management offices or partner with property management companies to handle these operational aspects efficiently. 
  • Revenue Sharing: As part of the partnership agreement, private housing developers typically receive a share of the rental income generated from the military housing units. The specific revenue-sharing arrangement varies depending on the terms negotiated between the developer and the military. This income can provide a steady and predictable revenue stream for the developer throughout the contract. 
  • Quality Assurance: Private housing developers are contractually obligated to maintain the quality and condition of the military housing units. The partnership agreements often include performance standards, maintenance requirements, and periodic inspections to ensure that the properties meet the established standards. Developers are responsible for promptly addressing any maintenance or repair issues, ensuring the safety and well-being of the tenants. 
  • Collaboration with the Military: Private housing developers work closely with the military authorities to align their operations with the needs of the military community. This collaboration involves ongoing communication, coordination, and collaboration with military housing offices and relevant personnel. The goal is to provide a seamless housing experience for military service members and their families while adhering to the specific policies and guidelines set by the military. 

Landlords near Military Bases 

The impact on landlords who own rental properties near military bases can be mixed. On the one hand, the privatization initiative may increase competition for rental properties in the local area. Military families may opt to live in privatized on-base housing rather than renting from private landlords. This could potentially lead to a decrease in demand for off-base rentals, resulting in lower occupancy rates and rental prices. 

On the other hand, the privatization initiative could indirectly benefit landlords with housing near military bases. If the quality and availability of on-base housing improves, it may attract more military personnel and their families to the area. This increased population could create additional demand for off-base rentals, potentially leading to higher occupancy rates and rental prices. 

It’s important to note that the exact impact on landlords near military bases can vary depending on various factors such as local housing market conditions, the quality of on-base housing, and the specific dynamics of each military installation. 


As you can see, it’s important for landlords to understand the MHPI because it can have a large impact on your rental business. 

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